{“format”:“markdown”,“text”:"# Mastering Quartiles: Understanding Data Distribution Like a Pro

## What Is a Quartile?

a Quartile is a statistical term that describes a division of observations into four defined intervals based on the values of the data and how they compare to the entire set of observations. Quartiles are organized into lower quartiles, median quartiles, and upper quartiles. When the data points are arranged in increasing order, data are divided into four sections of 25% of the data each.

### Key Takeaways

- Quartiles organize data into three points\u2014a lower quartile, median, and upper quartile\u2014to form four dataset groups.
- Along with the minimum and maximum values of the dataset, the quartiles divide a set of observations into four sections, each representing 25% of the observations.
- Quartiles are used to calculate the interquartile range, which is a measure of variability around the median.

## Unlocking the Power of Quartiles

to understand the quartile, it is important to understand the median as a measure of central tendency. The median in statistics is the middle value of a set of numbers. It is the point at which exactly half of the data lies below and half lies above the central value. The median is a robust estimator of location but says nothing about how the data on either side of its value is spread or dispersed. That’s where the quartile steps in.

The quartile measures the spread of values above and below the median by dividing the distribution into four groups. They are grouped into four sections of 25% of the data, with the second and third groups representing the interquartile range.

Just like the median divides the data in half so that 50% of the measurements lie below and 50% lie above it, the quartile breaks down the data into quarters so that 25% of the measurements are less than the lower quartile, 50% are less than the median, and 75% are less than the upper quartile.

### Types of Quartiles

There are three quartile values\u2014a lower quartile, median, and upper quartile\u2014which divide the dataset into four ranges, each containing 25% of the data points:

**First quartile (Q1)**: The set of data points between the minimum value and the first quartile.**Second quartile (Q2)**: The set of data points between the lower quartile and the median.**Third quartile (Q3)**: The set of data points between the median and the upper quartile.**Fourth quartile (Q4)**: The set of data points between the upper quartile and the maximum value.

## How to Calculate Quartiles in a Spreadsheet

Suppose you have a distribution of math scores in a class of 19 students. Enter them into a spreadsheet in ascending order:

Student | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Score |
59 | 60 | 65 | 65 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 72 | 75 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 81 | 82 | 84 | 87 | 90 | 95 |

Use functions to find the median and quartile values:

`=MEDIAN(A2:R2)`

for the median.`=QUARTILE(A2:R2, 1)`

for Q1.`=QUARTILE(A2:R2, 2)`

for Q2.`=QUARTILE(A2:R2, 3)`

for Q3.

In this example:

- Median \t= 75
- Q1 \t= 68.25
- Q2 \t= 75
- Q3 \t= 81.75

Visual representation can help:

## Calculate Quartiles Manually

Manual calculation requires formulas:

Using the set of values: 59, 60, 65, 65, 68, 69, 70, 72, 75, 75, 76, 77, 81, 82, 84, 87, 90, 95, 98

Apply the following formulas:

- First Quartile (Q1) = (n + 1) x 1/4
- Second Quartile (Q2), or the median = (n + 1) x 2/4
- Third Quartile (Q3) = (n + 1) x 3/4

Where *n* is the number of integers. Results:

- Q1 \t= 68
- Q2 \t= 75
- Q3 \t= 84

Results may differ slightly from spreadsheet calculations.

Quartiles also measure variability, known as the interquartile range. The interquartile range is the spread between Q1 and Q3.

In this case, the interquartile range is 68 to 84.

## Special Considerations

If Q1 is farther from the median compared to Q3, it indicates more dispersion among smaller dataset values. Conversely, if Q3 is farther, there is dispersion among larger values. This is called quartile skewness.

For even data points, use the average of the middle two numbers to get the median.

## FAQ on Quartiles

### How Do You Find the Lower Quartile of a Data Set?

Use a spreadsheet and the QUARTILE function. For example, `=QUARTILE(A1:A53,1)`

returns the first (lower) quartile.

### How Do You Find the Upper Quartile of a Data Set?

Use a spreadsheet and the QUARTILE function. For example, `=QUARTILE(A1:A53,3)`

returns the third (upper) quartile.

### What Is the Interquartile Range of a Data Set?

The interquartile range is the middle 50% of a dataset, calculated as the range between Q1 and Q3. It is more meaningful than the full range because it excludes outliers.

## The Bottom Line

Quartiles split datasets into quarters, yielding lower, middle, and upper quartiles. They shape distributions, helping determine if data is skewed, and can be instrumental in assessing the consistency of various datasets.

**Related Terms:** median, interquartile range, percentile, quartile deviation.