Gross working capital represents the total value of a company’s current assets that are convertible to cash within a year or less. Gross working capital minus current liabilities equals net working capital, commonly referred to simply as ‘working capital.’ This is a more insightful metric for balance sheet analysis.

## Key Takeaways

- Gross working capital encompasses the total value of a company’s current assets.
- Includes assets like accounts receivable, inventory, and marketable securities.
- On its own, it does not offer a complete picture of a company’s liquidity.
- Including current liabilities provides a more accurate assessment of liquidity and short-term debt obligations.
- It’s most valuable when tracked over time or compared against competitors.

## The Broader Context of Gross Working Capital

Gross working capital is merely one side of a company’s short-term financial health. It’s balanced by current liabilities. Gross working capital less current liabilities gives net working capital, which, when positive, indicates that current assets exceed current liabilities. A preferred measure is the ratio of current assets to current liabilities, where a figure greater than 1.0 is favorable.

If this ratio drops below 1.0, it suggests potential difficulties in repaying short-term debts. Negative working capital, where liabilities surpass assets, may signify financial distress. Therefore, maintaining the right amount of working capital is crucial for optimal operations.

Excessive working capital can mean that current assets are not being utilized efficiently, while insufficient working capital could lead to challenges in meeting day-to-day cash requirements. Managers aim to find a balance through effective working capital management.

Strategies to improve the working capital ratio include quicker receivables collection, longer payable periods, reducing short-term debt reliance, and better inventory management.

Despite its importance, gross working capital alone doesn’t gauge long-term solvency. It focuses on a company’s liquidity, i.e., its short-term debt repayment capability.

## Calculating Gross Working Capital

Gross working capital includes assets such as:

- Cash and cash equivalents
- Marketable securities
- Accounts receivable
- Interest receivable
- Inventory
- Other short-term assets expected to bring economic benefits within a year

Unlike net working capital, gross working capital excludes liabilities and focuses solely on the company’s assets.

## Practical Example of Gross Working Capital

Analyzing gross working capital alongside current liabilities provides insights into a company’s operations. Changes in current assets and liabilities can highlight the company’s financial condition.

For instance, consider Company ABC:

- At the end of 2021, Gross Working Capital: $7 billion
- Current Liabilities: $7.23 billion
- Resulting Working Capital Ratio: 0.97 (liabilities more than assets indicating a potential issue)

By the third quarter of 2022:

- Debt repaid
- Gross Working Capital: $7.8 billion
- Current Liabilities: $5 billion
- Resulting Working Capital Ratio: 1.56 (assets now exceed liabilities)

This indicates improved liquidity and financial health.

### Real-World Example: Microsoft

As of March 31, 2022, Microsoft reported:

- $153.922 billion total current assets, including cash, receivables, inventories, and other short-term assets.
- Total current liabilities were $77.4 billion.

While the liabilities would be subtracted to derive net working capital, they are excluded from gross working capital calculations. Thus, Microsoft’s gross working capital stood at $153.922 billion.

## Key Financial Definitions

### What Is Gross Working Capital?

Gross working capital represents a company’s total current assets before deducting current liabilities.

### How Do You Calculate Gross Working Capital?

Calculated as the sum of all current assets: cash, cash equivalents, receivables, inventory, and other short-term assets expected to generate economic benefit within a year.

### The Difference Between Gross Working Capital and Net Working Capital

Gross working capital includes only current assets, while net working capital also accounts for current liabilities. Gross working capital provides a pre-debt view, whereas net working capital gives a post-debt picture of financial health.

**Related Terms:** Working Capital, Current Liabilities, Net Working Capital, Liquidity Ratio.

### References

- Microsoft. “Earnings Release FY22 Q3.”